'My Early Life' by Winston Churchill / Вінстон Черчілль 'Мої молоді роки'

aide-de-camp(особистий) ад'ютант; офіцер для доручень; офіцер-ординарець; офіцер-порученець (The general's aide-de-camp at length produced a long metal bottle in which he made a beverage which he described as 'runcotelle. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill); ад'ютантський

arouse someone by trumpetбудити когось сурмою / горном (сигнальним ріжком) (I would free myself from all discipline and authority, and set up in perfect independence in England with nobody to give me orders or arouse me by bell or trumpet. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

artillery barrageартилерійський загороджувальний вогонь (Captain James was really the ingenious forerunner of the inventors of the artillery barrages of the Great War. - ‘My Early Lifeby Winston Churchill)

assume a preparatory formationрозгорнутися в передбойовий порядок (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

at the foot ofу самому низу / в кінці (напр. списку) (The first thing that caught my eyes were the Major's initials, 'O.B.' at the foot of the leaves granted for the day. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

at the head of the fileна чолі колони (напр. в строю) (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

at the saluting pointна трибуні для прийняття параду (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

be brigadedбути зведеним в бригаду (для бою або якої-небудь дії, наприклад маневрів); бути зведеним воєдино (в одне ціле) (the 10th Hussars were brigaded for some manoeuvres with another cavalry regiment. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

be destined for the Armyбути призначеним для армії (військової кар’єри) (Milbanke was destined for the Army. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

be fatiguedбути втомленим; бути виснаженим (the infantry did not seem in the least fatigued. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

be gazetted to(іст.) бути призначеним у (про що повідомляється в офіційному бюлетені) (In March 1895 I was gazetted to the 4th Hussars. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

be gone from the active listвийти у відставку; бути вилученим зі списків військовозобов’язаних (The veterans of the Crimea and the Indian Mutiny were gone from the active list. - ‘My Early Lifeby Winston Churchill)

be guilty of dereliction of duty(бути звинуваченим) бути винним у невиконанні службових обов'язків (отримати стягнення) (We had to catch the last train back to Sandhurst or be guilty of dereliction of duty. - ‘My Early Lifeby Winston Churchill)

be held in readiness(утримуватися) перебувати в стані готовності (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

be killed to be beatenбути вбитим, щоб бути побитим (надавати перевагу смерті, а не поразці) (It had never been his fortune to go on active service, but we were none the less sure that he would have had to be killed to be beaten. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

bivouacбівак / бівуак (зупинка військ для відпочинку або ночівлі в польових умовах) (I persuaded two of the younger staff officers to come with us and bathe in the river which encircled our bivouac on three sides. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill); стояти бівуаком; розташовуватися на бівуак (табором)

bivouackставати на ночівлю (розбивати бівуаки / під відкритим небом) (We marched and bivouacked day after day.; Every evening we bivouackedfor there were no tentsby the side of some new stream. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

brevetпозачергове звання (напр. зі збереженням колишнього грошового утримання); присвоювати позачергове звання (As he had gained two successive brevets upon active service he was in army rank actually senior to the Colonel of his own regiment. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

bring the war to a speedy end(якнайшвидше) швидко завершити війну (We did not think the Spaniards were likely to bring their war in Cuba to a speedy end. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

broken groundпересічена місцевісць (Spanish column debouched from the broken ground into open country. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

by unofficial pathsнеофіційними шляхами; потайними шляхами (without troubling the porter at the gates, reached our apartments by unofficial paths in good time for early morning parade. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

camping ground (for the night)місце стоянки (нічної) (As dusk was falling we reached our camping ground for the night. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

cantonmentрозквартирування; розміщення військ (The British lines or cantonments are in accordance with invariable practice placed five or six miles from the populous cities which they guard. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

cast anchorкинути якір (We sailed from Southampton and after a voyage of twenty-three days cast anchor in Bombay Harbour. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

change front through an angle of (X degrees)розвернути фронт на (Х градусів) (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

commissioned ranksофіцерський склад (These differences did not, however, extend to the commissioned ranks, and we were most hospitably entertained by the Officers' Mess. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

corditeкордит (бездимний порох, нітрогліцеринова вибухова речовина) (Supposing a war came, how would you fight without cordite? - 'My Early Life' by Winston Churchill)

crest line(топографічний) гребінь (напр. пагорба); лінія гребеня (Then from the distant crest line came a lot of little puffs of smoke. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

cross bearingперехресна пеленгація; перехресне пеленгування; перехресний пеленг; засічка (We have taken what is called in military map-making 'a cross bearing'. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

defy the Russiansкидати виклик росіянам (a great and splendid Statesman, who loved our country and defied the Russians. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

deprecate the use of alcohol on duty(засуджувати) заборонити вживання алкоголю на службі (Our Colonel, a super-martinet, and a splendid officer utterly unaffected by sixteen months of the brunt, deprecated the use of alcohol on duty. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

disciplinarianприхильник суворої дисципліни; той, хто суворо дотримується (вимагає) дисципліни (To me, apart from service matters in which he was a strict disciplinarian, he was always charming. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

do one`s dutyвиконувати свій обов'язок (England expects that every man will do his duty. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

draw a lodging allowanceотримувати квартирне грошове забезпечення / квартирні гроші / грошову допомогу на проживання (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

drill afoot(виконувати вправи) піший по-кінному; піший по-машинному (під час навчання) (He rode and drilled afoot with the troopers and received exactly the same instruction and training as they did. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

dug-outземлянка; врите в землю укриття; підземний притулок (бліндаж; сховище) (In a dark and dripping dug-out a bottle of port was being consumed, when the cry 'Commanding officer,' was heard. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill); (розм.) офіцер, призваний із запасу; човник, видовбаний зі стовбура дерева; викопаний; ; виритий; видовбаний

early morning paradeранковий огляд / ранкова повірка / ранкова перевірка (напр. особового складу) (I had to return to Aldershot by the midnight train for a very early morning parade. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

embark on a military career(націлитися на) розпочати військову кар'єру (I was now embarked on a military career. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

except in personal self-defenceза винятком особистої самооборони (Except in personal self-defence we can take no part in their combats. - ‘My Early Lifeby Winston Churchill)

fall backвідходити, відступати (The enemy, falling back before us, took advantage of every position. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

fight a war with smbвести війну з кимось (проти когось) (When I first stayed at Ventnor we were fighting a war with the Zulus. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

fighting strengthбойова міць, бойовий склад, бойова чисельність (Behind all lay the unmeasured fighting strength of fifty or sixty thousand fierce. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

fire in angerвести вогонь по противнику; відкривати вогонь по противнику (напр. у відповідь) (on that day for the first time I heard shots fired in anger, and heard bullets strike flesh or whistle through the air. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

forlorn attackбезнадійна атака / відчайдушна атака (He fell in the Gallipoli Peninsula, leading a forlorn attack in the awful battle of Suvla Bay. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

gain a brevetотримати позачергове звання (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

get clear of the broken groundвийти з пересіченої місцевості (вийти на відкритий простір) (As the leading Spanish battalion got clear of the broken ground, two companies were thrown forward on each flank and extended. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

go on active serviceбрати участь у бойових діях / стати учасником бойових дій (It had never been his fortune to go on active service. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

grievously woundedтяжко поранений; важко поранений; тяжкопоранений; важкопоранений (He gained the Victoria Cross ... for rescuing, when he was already grievously wounded, one of his troopers under a deadly fire. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

have a high commandочолити вище (верховне) командування (If future trouble broke out on the Indian frontier, he was sure to have a high command. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

hear bullets strike fleshчути, як кулі вдаряють по плоті (влучають у тіло людини) (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

hear bullets whistle through the airчути свист куль у повітрі (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

impenetrable jungleнепрохідні джунглі (що стоять глухою стіною) (Pursuit was impossible owing to the impenetrable jungle. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

in circumstances of forlorn hopeв безнадійній ситуації (у відчайдушному / скрутному становищі) (he was an officer who had in circumstances of forlorn hope rescued a comrade from Zulu assegais and bullets. - ‘My Early Lifeby Winston Churchill)

in column of companiesв ротних колонах (в колоні поротно) (The second battalion followed the guns in column of companies. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

in the front lineна передовій; на лінії фронту; на передньому краї (Our Colonel deprecated the use of alcohol on duty even under the shocking winter weather and in the front line. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

incidentalsдодаткові виплати; добавки (до грошового забезпечення) (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill); побічні витрати; дрібні та непередбачувані витрати

light a fireрозводити вогонь; розпалювати вогонь (The infantry lighted fires to cook their food. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill); роздмухувати вогонь

lodging allowanceквартирне грошове забезпечення / квартирні гроші; грошова допомога на проживання; (дотація) субсидія на оплату житла / на оренду житлового приміщення; житлова субсидія (No quarters are provided for the officers. They draw instead a lodging allowance. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

manoeuvre in column and fight in lineвиконувати маневри в колоні і вести бій у розгорнутому строю (бойовому порядку / лінії) (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

march at daybreak(почати рух) вирушити на світанку (He then announced that he would march at daybreak. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

military career(професійна) кар'єра військового; військова кар'єра (His military career had been long and varied. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

military map-making(іст.) військова картографія; військове картографування (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

mistтуман; імла, мла; серпанок (A mist gave cover to the rebel marksmen. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

monthly allowanceщомісячна виплата; щомісячна допомога (напр. фінансова) (it was more than a fortnight before my next monthly allowance of £10 was due. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

necessary outfit of a gentleman-cadetобов'язкові предмети екіпіровки (екіпірування) джентльмена-кадета / курсанта (I busied myself in ordering the considerable necessary outfit of a gentleman-cadet. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

Officers' Messофіцерська їдальня (we were most hospitably entertained by the Officers' Mess. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

open country / open groundвідкрита місцевість (Spanish column debouched from the broken ground into open country. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

peppery martinet(дратівливий) запальний служака / службист (My company commander ... was a very strict and peppery martinet. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

pith-helmet / pith helmetкорковий шолом; тропічний шолом (іст. колоніальний шолом) (In spite of broad-brimmed pith helmets, one felt the sun leaning down upon one and piercing our bodies with his burning rays. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

plain clothesцивільний одяг (I gobbled a hasty luncheon, changed into plain clothes ... and hastened to the railway station. - 'My Early Life' by Winston Churchill)

profession of armsпрофесія військового / військова справа (Henceforward all my education was directed to passing into Sandhurst, and afterwards to the technical details of the profession of arms. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

puffs of smokeклубочки диму (від пострілів) (from the distant crest line came a lot of little puffs of smoke. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

pursuitпереслідування (наступальні дії з завданням знищити противника або перерізати шляхи відходу) ('Pursuit was impossible owing to the impenetrable jungle.' - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)  ; (іст.) літак-винищувач; (іст.) винищувальна авіація; переслідувати

qualify for the infantryпройти відбір до піхоти (He thought it very discreditable that I had not qualified for the infantry. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

qualities of military geniusякості військового генія (For years I thought my father with his experience and flair had discerned in me the qualities of military genius. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

quarters(казенне) житло; квартири (No quarters are provided for the officers. They draw instead a lodging allowance. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill); місця за бойовим розкладом / бойові пости; (мор.) місця за аварійним розкладом (екіпажу); бойова тривога; великий збір; шикування; раковина (корабля); казарми; житлові приміщення; лінія (облогових робіт)

railhead(кінцева розвантажувальна) вивантажувальна залізнична станція; станція постачання (So it was settled that we were all to march off under escort sixty miles to the Boer railhead at Elandslaagte and to be sent to Pretoria as prisoners of war. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

resoundгучно лунати; віддаватися луною; розноситися (про звук); відбиватися (про звук); гуркотіти; докочуватися (про звук) (Not only shots but volleys resounded through the night. - ‘My Early Lifeby Winston Churchill)

restore one’s commissionвідновити (когось) в офіцерському статусі; поновити на службі (Here he so distinguished himself that there was a strong movement in high circles to restore to him his commission. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

reveille / réveillé (фр.) сигнал підйому (після нічного відпочинку, сну) (But almost immediately the trumpets sounded réveillé and we had to catch the 5.10 train. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

reviewогляд, парад (In the morning we were spectators of a review of the entire garrison. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill); розгляд; розглядати; робити огляд

seat of warвогнище війни; осередок війни; театр війни / воєнних дій (The Colonel and the Mess generally looked with favour upon a plan to seek professional experience at a seat of war. - 'My Early Life' by Winston Churchill)

serve under someoneслужити під командуванням (когось) (Such was the man under whom I now had the honour to serve. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

sharp fightзапеклий бій (The Boer commandos easily surrounded Dr. Jameson and his force, and after a sharp fight forced them to surrender. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

shatter the enemy's line(розтрощити) розбити лінію фронту / оборони (бойовий порядок / стрій) противника (with a withering volley he shattered the enemy's line. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

sit in one’s saddleпосидіти в чиємусь сідлі (опинитись на чиємусь місці) (there were very few subalterns in the British Army who would not have given a month's pay to sit in our saddles. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

sound reveilleграти сигнал підйому (після нічного відпочинку) (But almost immediately, it seemed, the trumpets sounded reveille. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

subaltern(брит.) молодший офіцер (scarcely a captain, hardly ever a subaltern, could be found throughout Her Majesty's forces who had seen even the smallest kind of war. - 'My Early Life' by Winston Churchill)

super-martinetусім служакам служака (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

swift and flexible changes from one formation to the otherшвидкі і різноманітні (гнучкі) переходи від однієї побудови військ до іншої (напр. похідний, передбойовий, бойовий порядок) (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

trooperсолдат (бронетанкових/парашутно-десантних військ тощо); (кінний) поліцейський (поліціянт); військовий транспорт; транспортне судно для перевезення військ (We sailed from Southampton in a trooper carrying about 1,200 men. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

trumpet(сигнальна труба) сурма (музичний інструмент прямої видовженої форми); горн (сигнальний ріжок) (But trumpets were sounded and orders shouted, and we all moved off at a trot towards the flank of the enemy. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

unbroken peaceбезперервний мир; непорушний мир (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

under a deadly fireпід забійним вогнем (під згубним вогнем) (He gained the Victoria Cross ... for rescuing ... one of his troopers under a deadly fire. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

unfurl the flagрозгорнути прапор (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

well-conducted cadets(зразкові) виховані / тактовні кадети (що зразково поводяться) (Well-conducted cadets could obtain leave to go to London simply by asking for it. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

well-directed fireвлучний вогонь; прицільний вогонь (точно спрямований; такий, що б'є в ціль) (the rebel marksmen saluted us with a well-directed fire. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

whistle of bulletsсвист куль (‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)

with a withering volleyубивчим залпом (with a withering volley he shattered the enemy's line. - ‘My Early Life’ by Winston Churchill)